A case-control study was undertaken to investigate the role of residential radon exposure for lung cancer. The study included 210 women with lung cancer diagnosed from 1983-1986 in the county of Stockholm and 191 hospital and 209 population controls. Interviews provided information on lifetime residences and smoking. Radon concentrations measured in 1,573 residences of the study subjects showed a lognormal distribution with arithmetic and geometric means of 127.7 and 96.0 Bq m-3, respectively. Lung cancer risks tended to increase with estimated radon exposure, reaching a relative risk of 1.7 (95% confidence interval: 1.0-2.9) in women having an average radon level exceeding 150 Bq m-3 (4 pCi L-1). Stronger associations were suggested in younger persons and risk estimates appeared to be within the same range as those projected for miners. However, further studies are needed to clarify the level of risk associated with exposure to residential radon.