HLA DQA, DQB, and DRB genotyping by oligonucleotide analysis: distribution of alleles and haplotypes in British caucasoids

Hum Immunol. 1992 May;34(1):53-63. doi: 10.1016/0198-8859(92)90085-2.


A precise method for comprehensive HLA DQA and DQB genotyping using gene amplification and hybridization with sequence-specific oligonucleotide (SSO) probes is described. Twenty-four SSO probes were used to detect all DQ allotypes defined by nucleotide sequence variation in the second exons of the DQ genes, using a standard set of conditions for all probes at each locus. Five hundred individuals were genotyped for 8 DQA1 and 16 DQB1 alleles by using this method and for 33 alleles of the DRB1, DRB3, DRB4, and DRB5 genes by using previously described SSO probes. The 4-locus DQB1-DQA1-DRB1-DRB3/4/5 haplotypes present were characterized on the basis of known linkage disequilibrium between class II alleles. Fifty-two different haplotypes that have previously been described were further characterized at the nucleotide sequence level and two novel haplotypes were identified. The distributions of these alleles and haplotypes in 177 randomly selected healthy Caucasoid controls from the United Kingdom are reported. These results identify further haplotypic diversity in the HLA class II region, even though strong linkage disequilibrium exists between the DR and DQ gene loci.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Alleles
  • Autoimmune Diseases / genetics
  • Autoimmune Diseases / immunology
  • Base Sequence
  • Child
  • European Continental Ancestry Group / genetics*
  • Gene Frequency
  • Genes, MHC Class II*
  • HLA-D Antigens / genetics*
  • HLA-DQ Antigens / genetics
  • HLA-DQ alpha-Chains
  • HLA-DQ beta-Chains
  • HLA-DR Antigens / genetics
  • HLA-DRB1 Chains
  • HLA-DRB3 Chains
  • HLA-DRB4 Chains
  • HLA-DRB5 Chains
  • Haplotypes
  • Histocompatibility Antigens Class II / genetics
  • Humans
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Oligonucleotide Probes*
  • Sequence Tagged Sites
  • United Kingdom


  • HLA-D Antigens
  • HLA-DQ Antigens
  • HLA-DQ alpha-Chains
  • HLA-DQ beta-Chains
  • HLA-DQA1 antigen
  • HLA-DQB1 antigen
  • HLA-DR Antigens
  • HLA-DRB1 Chains
  • HLA-DRB3 Chains
  • HLA-DRB4 Chains
  • HLA-DRB5 Chains
  • Histocompatibility Antigens Class II
  • Oligonucleotide Probes