Who will relapse? Symptoms of nicotine dependence predict long-term relapse after smoking cessation

J Consult Clin Psychol. 1992 Oct;60(5):797-801. doi: 10.1037//0022-006x.60.5.797.


Results of a prospective examination (N = 618) of factors associated with smoking relapse are reported. At 1-year follow-up, a modified version of the Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire (Dependence Index; DI) and a measure of craving entered the logistic model (odds ratio of 2.7 [p less than .001]). At Year 2, only the DI entered the model (odds ratio of 2.2 [p less than .001]). The ability of signal detection analysis (SDA) to produce clinically useful decision rules was also examined. At Year 1, SDA produced 1 subgroup with a 25% nonrelapse rate and another with a 9% nonrelapse rate (odds ratio of 3.4 [p less than .001]). At Year 2, SDA produced 1 subgroup with a nonrelapse rate of 19% and another with a nonrelapse rate of 7% (odds ratio of 3.0 [p less than .001]). The use of signal detection methods may help clinicians to identify those at greater or lesser risk of relapse.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Behavior Therapy
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Nicotine / administration & dosage
  • Nicotine / adverse effects*
  • Recurrence
  • Risk Factors
  • Smoking / adverse effects
  • Smoking / psychology*
  • Smoking Cessation / psychology*
  • Substance Withdrawal Syndrome / prevention & control
  • Substance Withdrawal Syndrome / psychology*


  • Nicotine