We investigated the hemodynamic effects of intracavernous injection of adenosine on canine penile erection. In all ten dogs studied, adenosine induced a dose-dependent increase of intracavernous pressure (ICP). Adenosine (0.67 to 15 micrograms/kg., B.W.) increased arterial blood flow by 83 to 325 percent above baseline levels and also increased venous resistance, which resulted in a full erection (ICP = 80 to 140 cm. H2O) for one to 7 minutes. The repeatability of the adenosine effect was confirmed in eight dogs. We found that adenosine, by virtue of its smooth muscle relaxation properties, can induce a dose-dependent increase of ICP and cause a full erection in dogs.