The effects of Bifidobacterium longum feedings for five weeks on the fecal microflora, water contents, pH values, ammonia concentration, and beta-glucuronidase activity were investigated in five healthy human volunteers. Although numbers of major bacterial groups of the fecal microflora were not changed by the bifidobacteria feedings, a remarkably decreasing number of lecithinase-negative clostridia was observed. The percentage of lecithinase-negative clostridia and bacteroides to the total bacterial numbers isolated were decreased during the feedings and numbers of C. paraputrificum and C. innocuum were reduced. A significant reduction of fecal pH values for the last week of the feeding was observed. Ammonia concentration and beta-glucuronidase activity in the feces during the feedings were significantly lower than those before or after the feedings. The oral supplement of B. longum may be introduced to improve the fecal properties such as fecal ammonia concentration and beta-glucuronidase activity, but not the composition of fecal flora.