Objective: To determine the outcome of treated pregnancies in women with well-characterized antiphospholipid syndrome.
Methods: We reviewed 82 consecutive pregnancies in 54 women with antiphospholipid syndrome who were treated during pregnancy with the following: 1) prednisone and low-dose aspirin; 2) heparin and low-dose aspirin; 3) prednisone, heparin, and low-dose aspirin; or 4) other combinations of these medications or immunoglobulin.
Results: The overall neonatal survival rate was 73%, excluding spontaneous abortions, but treatment failures (fetal and neonatal deaths) occurred in all treatment groups. Patients with successful treated pregnancies had fewer previous fetal deaths than those with unsuccessful treated pregnancies. There were no significant differences in outcome among the four treatment groups. Preeclampsia and fetal distress occurred in half of all pregnancies, and fetal growth impairment occurred in nearly one-third. Preterm delivery due to maternal or fetal indications was required in 37% of the pregnancies. Four pregnancies were also complicated by postpartum thrombosis during treatment.
Conclusions: Pregnancy in women with antiphospholipid syndrome appears to be improved by treatment, but fetal loss may occur despite treatment. Preeclampsia, fetal distress, fetal growth impairment, and premature delivery are common. Because of the clinically significant risk of thrombotic episodes, thrombosis prophylaxis should be considered in these patients.