A single injection of 100 micrograms of lipopolysaccharide from Salmonella typhimurium in the foot pads of Lewis rats induced acute inflammation of the eye. Clinically, the disease started as early as 0.5 h and peaked 18 h after the inoculation. The aqueous protein concentration was increased after the inoculation. Histopathologically, cellular infiltrates and proteinaceous exudates were observed in the anterior segment (anterior chamber, iris and ciliary body). In addition to those changes described in previous reports, the examination of the posterior segment showed retinal vasculitis, hemorrhagic exudates, focal destruction of photoreceptor cells and choroidal infiltration.