Background: Hemodynamically active vascular lesions of the orbit are often clinically challenging to treat, both because of the complexity of the vascular anatomy and the delicacy of the cardinal structures that are involved and vulnerable to damage. Attempts to achieve complete embolization of such vascular lesions may result in damage to vital visual structures. Conversely, incomplete closure of the feeders or vascular shunts will usually result in recanalization and, therefore, recurrence of such lesions.
Methods: Surgical excision after selective optimal embolizations may convert dynamic lesions into static ones with controlled surgical risks and could provide a solution to these problems. Cyanoacrylic polymerization was used to embolize the lesions, which were then excised with careful microsurgical and microvascular techniques.
Results: The authors present four cases of different hemodynamically active orbital vascular lesions (a post-traumatic arteriovenous fistula, a complex venous anomaly, a cavernous hemangioma of bone, and an arteriovenous malformation), which were treated successfully with the combination of presurgical embolization and surgery.
Conclusion: The authors believe that, from their experience with these cases, a multidisciplinary approach to complicated orbital vascular lesions is ideal and practical.