High-resolution CT is more sensitive than chest radiography and conventional CT in the detection and assessment of benign asbestos-related pleural and parenchymal diseases. The HRCT features of asbestosis correlate with clinical and functional restriction. The specificity of HRCT findings of asbestosis needs further evaluation. Given its low cost and availability, chest radiography remains the mainstay of imaging in benign asbestos-related diseases. CT (conventional or high-resolution) is not recommended as a universal screening test in asbestos-exposed workers. It has a useful role in identifying and quantitating pulmonary fibrosis distinct from emphysema and pleural disease, in distinguishing pleural disease from normal extrapleural soft tissues, and in clarifying the confusing chest radiograph or conflicting pulmonary function data. CT is useful in excluding a mass that may be obscured by extensive pleural and parenchymal fibrosis and is helpful in the follow-up of benign fibrotic masses or in the direction of their biopsy.