From 1960 10 1984, 2,501 women underwent diagnostic laparoscopy (index laparoscopy) because of a clinical suspicion of acute pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Of these women, 1,844 had abnormal laparoscopic findings (patients) and 657 had normal findings (control subjects). The reproductive events after index laparoscopy of 1,732 patients and 601 control subjects were followed. The patients and control subjects were followed for a total of 13,400 and 3,958 woman-years, respectively. During the follow-up period, 1,309 (75.6%) of the patients and 451 (75.0%) of the control subjects attempted to conceive. Of these women, 209 (16.0%) of the patients and 12 (2.7%) of the control subjects failed to conceive. A total of 141 (10.8%) of the patients and 0 (0%) of the control subjects had confirmed tubal factor infertility, 21 (1.6%) of the patients and 3 (0.7%) control subjects had other causes of infertility, and 47 (3.6%) patients and 9 (2.0%) control subjects did not have a complete infertility evaluation. Additional information on tubal morphology (hysterosalpingography, laparoscopy, or laparotomy) in women from couples for whom evaluation was incomplete indicated that 165 (12.2%) patients and 4 (0.9%) of the control subjects had abnormal tubal function or morphology after index laparoscopy. Tubal factor infertility after PID was associated with number and severity of PID episodes. The ectopic pregnancy rate for first pregnancy after index laparoscopy was 9.1% among the patients and 1.4% among control subjects.