Glomerular hyperfiltration is thought to play an important role in the genesis of diabetic nephropathy. While hyperfiltration is well documented in early type I diabetes, the evidence for hyperfiltration in type II diabetes is conflicting. We investigated 16 nonproteinuric patients with recently diagnosed type II diabetes. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) were measured as inulin clearance (CIN) and p-aminohippuric acid clearance (CPAH) using a constant infusion technique. Lean body mass was measured by densitometry (weighing under water). Renal hemodynamics were also measured in 31 healthy volunteers and six obese nondiabetic individuals. Median GFR in diabetics (133 mL/min/1.73 m2; range, 95 to 165) was significantly (P < 0.01) higher than in obese nondiabetic controls (median, 118; range, 95 to 139). Elevated GFR (ie, > 95th percentile of nonobese healthy controls) was found in 44% of patients. When GFR was factored for lean body mass, it was elevated in 50%. GFR did not correlate with fasting glucose, hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C), insulin-like growth factors, IGF-1 and IGF-2, or somatomedin-binding protein (SMBP). The findings document that hyperfiltration is common in recent-onset type II diabetics.