Current cigarette smoking and risk of acute pelvic inflammatory disease

Am J Public Health. 1992 Oct;82(10):1352-5. doi: 10.2105/ajph.82.10.1352.


Objectives: Further information is needed on modifiable factors associated with the occurrence of acute pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Cigarette smoking has been implicated as a risk factor for PID sequelae, but the association between smoking and PID has yet to be fully examined.

Methods: We conducted a population-based case-control study to evaluate smoking as a risk factor for acute PID. The case patients (n = 131) were women health maintenance organization (HMO) enrollees between the ages of 18 and 40 years who were treated for a first episode of PID. The control patients (n = 294) were randomly selected from the HMO enrollment files.

Results: Relative to never smokers, current smokers were at increased risk of PID. Women who smoked 10 or more cigarettes per day had a higher risk than did those who smoked less. Available data indicate that smoking status is not serving as a marker for uncontrolled confounding by lifestyle factors.

Conclusions: Our study results suggest that smoking represents a modifiable risk factor for acute PID.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Confounding Factors, Epidemiologic
  • Contraception / methods
  • Educational Status
  • Female
  • Health Maintenance Organizations
  • Humans
  • Income / statistics & numerical data
  • Interviews as Topic
  • Marital Status
  • Parity
  • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease / epidemiology*
  • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease / etiology
  • Racial Groups
  • Risk Factors
  • Sexual Partners
  • Smoking / adverse effects*
  • Smoking / epidemiology
  • Therapeutic Irrigation / statistics & numerical data
  • Vagina
  • Washington / epidemiology