We documented the presence of lymphocytic prostatitis in all prostate specimens received over a 4-month period. Lymphocytic prostatitis was present in 44% of biopsy specimens (n = 77), 95% of transurethral prostatic resection specimens (n = 20), and 100% of total prostatectomy specimens (n = 9). The patchiness of the prostatitis within the prostate in part explains the lower prevalence in the biopsy specimens, which sample a much smaller portion of the gland compared with the other procedures. Lymphocytic prostatitis was seen in prostates both with and without adenocarcinoma. However, in specimens containing carcinoma, the lymphocytic aggregates rarely involved malignant glands. Instead, the aggregates were either stromal or involved nonmalignant glands either adjacent to or away from the tumor, including glands with hyperplasia, atrophy, and prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia. Even when malignant and nonmalignant glands were in close proximity, there was a sharp demarcation with respect to lymphocytic inflammation. Immunohistochemical staining with B-cell and T-cell markers disclosed that the vast majority are T lymphocytes. The localization of lymphoid aggregates to nonmalignant (including prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia) glands but not frankly neoplastic glands, suggests a selective escape of immune detection by neoplastic glands.