The ability of C57BL, C3H, and A strain marrow cells to proliferate on transplantation into irradiated isogenic, F1 hybrid, and backcross progeny mice has been investigated by the spleen-colony technique and by measuring the newly-formed DNA in the recipient spleen with [131I] 5-iododeoxyuridine. Transplants of C57BL cells grew poorly in (A×C57BL)F1 and in (C57BL×C3H)F1 and reciprocal hybrids, as compared with isogenic and allogeneic hosts, whereas C3H and A strain marrow grafts were successful in isogenic, F1 hybrid and backcross recipients. In segregating backcross progeny, i.e. in offspring from F1 hybrid females mated to C57BL males, the frequency of success or failure of the C57BL grafts suggested that the trait was controlled by a single pair of genetic determinants at an autosomal locus. The latter is apparently linked with, or part of, the H-2 region in the IXth linkage group. The experimental evidence suggested also that the failure of C57BL haemopoietic cell grafts in H-2 heterozygotes was not related to exhaustion of donor cells by excess of recipient isoantigen but rather to lack of expression in the heterozygotes of histocompatibility-related growth requirements yet undefined. These requirements are specific for haemopoietic cells, but not for skin grafts, and resulted most probably from the effect of genetic (inter-allelic) interaction involving H-2 or an H-2-linked locus.