Degradation of some phenols and hydroxybenzoates by the imperfect ascomycetous yeasts Candida parapsilosis and Arxula adeninivorans: evidence for an operative gentisate pathway

Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 1992 Oct;62(3):181-7. doi: 10.1007/BF00582578.


The imperfect ascomycetous yeasts Candida parapsilosis and Arxula adeninivorans degraded 3-hydroxybenzoic acid via gentisate which was the cleavage substrate. 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid was metabolized via protocatechuate. No cleavage enzyme for the latter was detected. In stead of this NADH- and NADPH-dependent monooxygenases were present. In cells grown at the expense of hydroquinone and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, enzymes of the hydroxyhydroquinone variant of the 3-oxoadipate pathway were demonstrated, which also took part in the degradation of 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid by C. parapsilosis.

MeSH terms

  • Biodegradation, Environmental
  • Candida / enzymology
  • Candida / metabolism*
  • Glutathione / metabolism
  • Hydroquinones / metabolism
  • Hydroxybenzoates / metabolism*
  • Parabens / metabolism
  • Phenols / metabolism*
  • Yeasts / enzymology
  • Yeasts / metabolism*


  • Hydroquinones
  • Hydroxybenzoates
  • Parabens
  • Phenols
  • hydroxyhydroquinone
  • 3-hydroxybenzoic acid
  • Glutathione
  • 4-hydroxybenzoic acid
  • hydroquinone