Vitreous changes in diabetes can exacerbate proliferative diabetic retinopathy. These changes may be due to the effects of diabetes on vitreous collagen. Vitreous samples from 19 patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy and 23 patients without diabetes were analyzed for collagen crosslinks, as well as for the early glycation products, glucitolyllysine and glucitolylhydroxylysine. Fluorometry was performed to measure advanced glycation end products. Vitreous collagen derived from diabetic patients was found to have significantly higher levels of the crosslink dihydroxylysinonorleucine (3.15 vs 1.24 mol/mol collagen, P<.01) than that of control subjects. Early glycation products were elevated in diabetic vitreous (1.65 vs 0.54 mol/mol collagen, P<.05). Levels of advanced glycation end products were 20 times higher in diabetic vitreous compared with the vitreous of controls. These diabetes-induced alterations of human vitreous may be of particular importance given the role of vitreous in proliferative diabetic retinopathy and vision loss.