Annexin VI (p68, 67-kDa calelectrin) is a member of a family of Ca2+/phospholipid-binding proteins, that includes p35 (annexin I) and p36 (annexin II), the major cellular substrates for phosphorylation by the epidermal growth factor receptor and pp60v-src tyrosine kinase activities, respectively. We report here that like annexins I and II, annexin VI is phosphorylated in vivo, but that in contrast, annexin VI phosphorylation is associated with cell growth. In both Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts and human T-lymphoblasts the pattern of phosphorylation followed an almost identical profile. In particular, annexin VI was not phosphorylated in quiescent cells, but was phosphorylated on serine and to a lesser extent threonine, several hours following cell stimulation. Furthermore, annexin VI also incorporated phosphate in a growth-dependent manner, in a form other than a phosphoamino-acid. The phosphate was visualised following acid hydrolysis of immunoprecipitated annexin VI, as part of a complex having high mobility on 2-D thin-layer electrophoresis. The identity of this complex is not known. The results suggest that a post-translational modification other than direct protein phosphorylation may influence the activity of annexin VI and provide evidence linking cell growth with regulation of annexin VI function.