The complete assignment of 1H and 15N backbone resonances and near-complete 1H side-chain resonance assignments have been obtained for the reduced form of a mutant of human thioredoxin (105 residues) in which the three non-active site cysteines have been substituted by alanines: C62A, C69A, C73A. The assignments were made primarily on the basis of three-dimensional 15N-separated nuclear Overhauser and Hartmann-Hahn spectroscopy, in conjunction with two-dimensional homonuclear and heteronuclear correlation experiments. Based on comparisons of short-range and interstrand nuclear Overhauser effects, patterns of amide exchange, and chemical-shift differences, the structure appears essentially unchanged from that of the previously determined solution structure of the native protein [Forman-Kay, J.D. et al. (1991) Biochemistry, 30, 2685-2698]. An assay for thioredoxin shows that the C62A, C69A, C73A mutant retains activity. The assignment of the spectrum for this mutant of human thioredoxin constitutes the basis for future studies aimed at comparing the details of the active-site conformation in the reduced and oxidized forms of the protein.