The responses of globus pallidus (GP) neurons to stimulation of the sensorimotor cortex, the neostriatum, and the subthalamic nucleus were intracellularly recorded in anesthetized rats. Stimulation of the cortex evoked a sequence of postsynaptic responses including an initial short EPSP, a short IPSP, and a late EPSP with multiple spikes in most of the repetitively firing GP neurons. The response pattern was very similar to those evoked by striatal stimulation, except that the latencies were longer. An acute knife cut placed immediately caudal to the substantia nigra caused no significant change in the responses to cortical and striatal stimulation. Stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus evoked a short latency EPSP overlapped with an IPSP. The polarity of all the IPSPs was reversed by a Cl- injection. A systemic injection of picrotoxin abolished all the IPSPs and unmasked large depolarizations with multiple spikes. An ibotenic acid lesion of the subthalamic nucleus eliminated both the initial short latency and late EPSPs to cortical and striatal stimulation and disclosed a prominent IPSP. Stimulation of the lesioned subthalamic nucleus also evoked large, short latency IPSPs without noticeable EPSPs. These results indicate that (i) the IPSPs evoked by cortical, striatal, and subthalamic stimulation were mediated by a GABAA receptor, (ii) both the initial and late EPSPs to cortical and striatal stimulation involved activation of the subthalamic nucleus but not brainstem nuclei, and (iii) cortically derived signals mediated through the neostriatum (i.e. long latency IPSPs) and the subthalamic nucleus (i.e. short latency EPSPs) converged on most GP neurons.