Ataxia-telangiectasia is a syndrome of progressive cerebellar ataxia and other neurological manifestations associated with conjunctival and cutaneous telangiectases and with recurrent sino-pulmonary infections. Immunological and endocrine abnormalities occur. Two girls with this disease are described. The first had only minor respiratory infections; her serum proteins and immunity responses appeared normal. The second had recurrent pulmonary infections and bronchiectasis; she also exhibited sclerodermatous changes, poor development of secondary sexual characteristics with low urinary excretion of 17-ketosteroids, and lymphopenia. Autopsy at 17 years showed bilateral ovarian dysgerminomata and excessive cutaneous collagen as well as atrophy, and perhaps hypoplasia, of adrenals, thymus, spleen and lymphoid tissue (after steroid therapy). The cerebellum exhibited cortical degeneration. Both lungs were fibrotic with old and recent bronchopneumonia and bronchiectasis. The left lung was studied by injection of a latex preparation; no arteriovenous aneurysms were found, but the smaller pulmonary vessels showed some unusual morphological characteristics.