In the abdominal ganglia of the turnip moth Agrotis segetum, an antibody against the cockroach neuropeptide leucokinin I recognizes neurons with varicose fibers and terminals innervating the perisympathetic neurohemal organs. In the larva, the abdominal perisympathetic organs consist of a segmental series of discrete neurohemal swellings on the dorsal unpaired nerve and the transverse nerves originating at its bifurcation. These neurohemal structures are innervated by varicose terminals of leucokinin I-immunoreactive (LKIR) fibers originating from neuronal cell bodies located in the preceding segment. In the adult, the abdominal segmental neurohemal units are more or less fused into a plexus that extends over almost the whole abdominal nerve cord. The adult plexus consists of peripheral nerve branches and superficial nerve fibers beneath the basal lamina of the neural sheath of the nerve cord. During metamorphosis, the LKIR fibers closely follow the restructuration of the perisympathetic organs. In both larvae and adults the LKIR fibers in the neurohemal structures originate from the same cell bodies, which are distributed as ventrolateral bilateral pairs in all abdominal ganglia. The transformation of the series of separated and relatively simple larval neurohemal organs into the larger, continuous and more complex adult neurohemal areas occurs during the first of the two weeks of pupal life. The efferent abdominal LKIR neurons of the moth Agrotis segetum thus belong to the class of larval neurons which persist into adult life with substantial peripheral reorganization occurring during metamorphosis.