A monoclonal antibody against allatostatin I was used to demonstrate the allatostatin-immunoreactive pathways between the brain and the corpus cardiacum-corpus allatum complex in the adult cockroach Diploptera punctata. The antibody was two to three orders of magnitude more sensitive to allatostatin I than to the other four known members of the allatostatin family. Whole and sectioned brains in which immunoreactivity was localized with horseradish peroxidase-H2O2-diaminobenzidine reaction showed strongly immunoreactive cells in the pars lateralis of the brain with axons leading to and arborizing in the corpus cardiacum and the corpus allatum. Although many neurosecretory cells of the pars intercerebralis project to the corpora allata only, four strongly immunoreactive cells were evident here (two pairs on either side), and these did not project to the corpus cardiacum and corpus allatum but rather terminated within the protocerebrum in areas in which lateral cells also formed arborizations. Immunoreactivity was found in many other cells in the brain, especially in the tritocerebrum.