Achilles tendon overuse injuries

Clin Sports Med. 1992 Oct;11(4):771-82.


Overuse injuries of the Achilles tendon are common in patients engaging in recreational athletics. Achilles tendon overuse injuries exist as a spectrum of diseases ranging from inflammation of the paratendinous tissue (paratenonitis), to structural degeneration of the tendon (tendinosis), and finally tendon rupture. Factors known to predispose patients to Achilles tendinitis include inadequate stretching, training errors, mechanical malalignment of the lower extremities, rigid training surfaces, and occasionally systemic disease. Treatment of the patient with paratenonitis and tendinosis is initially conservative, emphasizing passive stretching, concentric and eccentric strengthening, correction of training errors, and restoration of normal limb alignment. Patients resistant to this protocol often exhibit a more advanced degree of tendon change. A high percentage of these patients can benefit from surgical debridement of the involved tendon, and they can anticipate successful return to recreational athletics. Steroid injections should not be routinely used in patients with Achilles tendinitis. Rupture of the Achilles tendon following intratendinous injection has been reported.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Achilles Tendon / injuries*
  • Cumulative Trauma Disorders* / physiopathology
  • Cumulative Trauma Disorders* / therapy
  • Exercise Therapy
  • Humans
  • Running / injuries*
  • Rupture
  • Tendon Injuries* / physiopathology
  • Tendon Injuries* / therapy