Five patients with non-Alzheimer non-Pick dementia combined with Fahr's syndrome were studied. Atypical clinical pictures emerged from an evaluation of these cases. Their symptoms and signs could be attributed neither to Alzheimer's disease nor to Pick's disease but to a partial mixture of both. The neuropathological changes were characteristic, and the common findings were as follows: 1) the absence of senile (neuritic) plaques, 2) the widespread presence of numerous neurofibrillary tangles throughout the neocortex, 3) a calcareous deposition of Fahr's type, 4) a circumscribed cerebral atrophy in the temporal or/and frontal lobes, 5) a moderate or severe demyelination and fibrous gliosis in the white matter of the atrophied areas and 6) a mild or moderate neuronal loss in the nucleus basalis of Meynert. These neuropathological changes were not due to Alzheimer's disease nor to Pick's disease. Similar cases reported previously were reviewed.