In a retrospective study a new lipid-based delivery system for administration of amphotericin B was evaluated in 26 treatment courses in 22 patients. Amphotericin B was given by infusion diluted in either the lipid solution (1 mg/kg/d; 13 courses) or dextrose (0.92 mg/kg/d; 13 courses). No differences were noted in the serum pharmacokinetics. Fever or rigors were observed in 6 of 13 courses in the conventional amphotericin B group versus none in the lipid amphotericin B group (p = 0.007). Four of 13 courses of treatment were discontinued due to adverse effects in the conventional amphotericin B group compared to none in the other group (p = 0.048). In the lipid amphotericin B group the decrease in creatinine clearance was significantly lower on the fourth day of treatment (p = 0.04) and significantly fewer patients had a decrease of more than 25% in creatinine clearance on the sixth day (4/12 vs 9/11 p = 0.02). These preliminary findings suggest that this lipid amphotericin B formulation is well tolerated with few nephrotoxic effects.