A total of 30 cases of 46,XX true hermaphroditism was analysed for Y-DNA sequences including the recently cloned gene for male testis-determination SRY. In 3 cases, a portion of the Y chromosome including SRY was present and, in 2 cases, was localised, to Xp22 by in situ hybridisation. Since previous studies have shown that the majority of XX males are generated by an X-Y chromosomal interchange, the Xp22 position of the Yp material suggests that certain cases of hermaphroditism can arise by the same meiotic event. The phenotype in the 3 SRY-positive cases may be caused by X-inactivation resulting in somatic mosaicism of testis-determining factor expression giving rise to both testicular and ovarian tissues. Autosomal or X-linked mutation(s) elsewhere in the sex-determining pathway may explain the phenotype observed in the remaining 27 SRY-negative cases.