Recently, we characterized a cDNA clone that encodes a human brain adenylyl cyclase (HBAC1). In the present study, we identified a second population of mRNA suspected to encode a new brain adenylyl cyclase (HBA C2). The amino acid sequence of HBA C2 displays significant homology with HBA C1 in the highly conserved adenylyl cyclase domain (250 aminio acids), found in the 3' cytoplasmic domain of all mammalian adenylyl cyclases. However, outside this domain, the homology is extremely low, suggesting that the corresponding mRNA originates from a different gene. We report here the first chromosomal localization of the adenylyl cyclase genes determined by in situ hybridization of human metaphase chromosomal spreads using human brain cDNA probes specific for each mRNA. The probe corresponding to HBA C1 exhibited a strong specific signal on chromosome 8q24, with a major peak in the band q24.2. In contrast, the HBA C2 probe hybridized to chromosome 5p15, with a major peak in the band p15.3. The two cDNAs hybridized at the two loci without any cross reactivity. Thus, in human brain, a heterogeneous population of adenylyl cyclase mRNAs is expressed, and the corresponding genes might be under the control of independent regulatory mechanisms.