Pancreatic spasmolytic polypeptide (PSP) is a peptide that is isolated from the porcine pancreas and that affects intestinal motility and growth of intestinal tumour cells in vitro. The peptide was recently demonstrated to be present in large amounts in pancreatic juice. The cellular origin of the peptide, however, is largely unclarified and the localization was therefore studied of PSP in pigs using immunohistochemistry. Positive immunoreactions were seen in the pancreas, the stomach, the duodenum, the jejunum and the ileum. In the pancreas, the PSP immunoreaction was seen in all acinar cells; no immunoreaction was seen in the endocrine islets. In the stomach, it was localized to the mucous cells of the glands in the cardiac gland region, the corpus and the pylorus. In the duodenum a strong immunoreaction was present in Brunner's glands and in the cells of their excretory ducts. In the jejunum and ileum, PSP immunoreactivity was seen in some of the cells in the epithelium of the crypts of Lieberkühn. A peptide chromatographically identical to highly purified PSP was identified in pancreas and stomach extracts. Thus epithelial cells in all parts of the stomach and small intestine contribute to the supply of PSP to the gut lumen.