The axostyles of the flagellates Oxymonas, Saccinobaculus, and Notila are large ribbon-shaped structures which undulate actively in the cytoplasm. The form of their movements is described and illustrated. Axostyles consist of regular arrays of longitudinal fibres, the number of which varies between 100 and 5000 in different species. The fibres are about 240 A in diameter, apparently hollow, regularly cross-banded with a periodicity of about 150 A, and connected by delicate cross-links, also at regular intervals of about 150 A. They resemble very closely the central fibres of cilia and flagella. No other structural components are present, except at the anterior end, where the fibres are attached to one or more basal bodies, and at the posterior tip, where they are anchored to the plasma membrane. The relevance of the findings to an understanding of the mechanism of ciliary and flagellar movements is discussed.