During 2 years and 10 months from November 1985 to September 1988, 50 patients with invasive bladder cancer (pT2-4, pN0-2, M0) were treated with total cystectomy followed by adjuvant combination chemotherapy including cis-platinum. In addition, so-called immunopotentiator (OK-432) and Kanpo (Juzentaihoto: TJ-48) were given to the patients in a random fashion to evaluate whether or not these agents had any significant effect on patients' prognosis. The 3- and 5-year survival rates for 48 evaluable patients were 71% and 67%, respectively. Histologic grade of primary tumors and number of cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy administered had a significant correlation to patients' survival: patients with grade 2 anaplasia had a better 3- and 5-year survival rates than those with grade 3 anaplasia, and patients receiving 3 or more cycles of chemotherapy had a better 3-year survival rate than those with 2 or less cycles. pT and pN categories also affected patients' survival, though not statistically significant. Administration of OK-432 or TJ-48 and pre-operative treatment such as irradiation and intra-arterial chemotherapy had no favourable effects on the survival. Side effects of the adjuvant chemotherapy were minimal to moderate and more than 70% of the patients tolerated at least 3 cycles of chemotherapy. It is likely that adjuvant chemotherapy, when given in a post-operative setting, should be repeated at least 3 cycles or more.