The main conclusions of this study are that BCG/PPD-activated macrophages, in contrast to macrophages from control mice, exhibit an increased PMA-induced production of H2O2, kill about one-third of the phagocytosed Candida albicans, and cause more than 50% inhibition of the intracellular formation of germ tubes by C. albicans. Peritoneal macrophages from mice that were colonized post-natally with C. albicans do not show increased production of H2O2 upon stimulation with PMA and the intracellular outgrowth of germ tubes is inhibited to only a limited degree. These macrophages are capable of killing about 20% of the ingested C. albicans. In vivo, the number of Candida in the kidney, spleen and liver after intravenous injection of Candida albicans is significantly lower in BCG-treated mice than in control mice. Post-natal colonization with C. albicans has only a limited effect on the outgrowth of intravenously injected C. albicans in the spleen and liver but does not influence growth in the kidney. These results indicate that acquired immunity against a systemic Candida infection involves both oxidative and non-oxidative mechanisms of intracellular killing and that these mechanisms may have different effects on the yeast and hyphal forms of C. albicans.