The production of interleukin-1 (IL-1) by cultured neonatal rat microglia was studied using the D10 cell assay. The results show that IL-1 was secreted in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. IL-1 production was specific to microglia and was not induced in astrocytes. Indomethacin, which is known to modulate the release of IL-1 from monocytes, had no effect on LPS-stimulated microglia. Aging of the microglia from two weeks to 4 weeks in culture, however, reduced the release of IL-1 in response to LPS. Our data indicate that microglia are a major source of IL-1 and that the release of IL-1 depends on the presence of inflammatory mediators such as LPS and the age of the culture.