The present article reports the genotoxic potential of rapeseed oil cooking fume investigated by a battery of short-term tests (Ames test, SCE/V79 in vitro and mice micronucleus in vivo test). The results showed that the cooking fume contained mutagenic activity. In the presence of S9 mix, an increase in the number of the Salmonella TA98 was observed at doses ranging from 1.0 to 5.0 mg/plate, and the SCE frequencies of V79 cell were markedly raised at doses ranging from 0.05 to 0.5 mg.ml-1. The positive result was also obtained in mice micronucleus assay, the mice had inhaled the cooking fume a week earlier. The frequency of mice bone marrow MN-PCE was increased and it showed a remarkable time-dose-response relationship during the 4 weeks exposure. The results suggested that this cooking fume exposure may be a risk factor of lung cancer in Chinese women.