Depression in Parkinson's disease: clinical correlates and outcome

Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2003 Oct;10(1):23-8. doi: 10.1016/s1353-8020(03)00067-1.


Depression has been shown to be more common in Parkinson's disease (PD) than in other chronic and disabling disorders. Neurochemical and functional disturbances are important etiopathogenic factors. The prevalence and clinical features associated with depression in PD remain controversial. The purpose of this study is to estimate the prevalence of depressive symptoms in our patients, as related to other clinical data, and to assess clinical outcomes of these symptoms. A series of PD patients were evaluated over a 9-year period, using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), Hoehn and Yahr stage (HY), Schwab and England Scale (SE), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and Yesavage Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). Presence of depressive symptoms was considered if GDS score was higher than 10: mild-moderate (MD) for GDS scores between 11 and 20 and moderate-severe (SD) for GDS scores greater than 20. Three hundred and fifty-three patients were included in this study and additional follow up information was obtained for 184 patients. MD and SD were found in 40.2 and 16.7% of PD patients, respectively. Female gender, high HY, high UPDRS total and subtotal, and low MMSE and SE scores were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. According to changes in GDS score, 34% of patients remained stable, 35% showed an improvement, and 30.9% worsened in the follow up study. Gender, age, age of onset, HY, UPDRS, and PD duration are not related to depression outcome.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Depression / complications
  • Depression / epidemiology*
  • Depression / psychology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Parkinson Disease / complications
  • Parkinson Disease / epidemiology*
  • Parkinson Disease / psychology*
  • Prospective Studies
  • Psychiatric Status Rating Scales / statistics & numerical data
  • Sex Factors
  • Statistics, Nonparametric
  • Treatment Outcome