The human checkpoint Rad protein Rad17 is chromatin-associated throughout the cell cycle, localizes to DNA replication sites, and interacts with DNA polymerase epsilon

Nucleic Acids Res. 2003 Oct 1;31(19):5568-75. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkg765.


The checkpoint Rad proteins Rad17, Rad9, Rad1, Hus1, ATR, and ATRIP become associated with chromatin in response to DNA damage caused by genotoxic agents and replication inhibitors, as well as during unperturbed DNA replication in S phase. Here we show that murine Rad17 is phosphorylated at two sites that were previously shown to be modified in response to DNA damage, independent of DNA damage and ATM, in proliferating tissue. In contrast to studies with Xenopus laevis extracts but similar to observations in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the level of chromatin-bound hRad17 remains relatively constant during the cell cycle and does not change significantly in response to DNA damage or replication block. However, phosphorylated hRad17 preferentially associates with the sites of ongoing DNA replication and interacts with the DNA replication protein, DNA polymerase epsilon. These results provide a link between the DNA damage checkpoint machinery and the replication apparatus and suggest that hRad17 may play a role in monitoring the progress of DNA replication via its interaction with DNA polymerase epsilon.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Proteins
  • Cell Cycle
  • Cell Cycle Proteins / analysis*
  • Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism*
  • Cell Line
  • Chromatin / chemistry*
  • DNA Damage
  • DNA Polymerase II / metabolism*
  • DNA Replication*
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Humans
  • Mice
  • Phosphorylation
  • Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins


  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • Chromatin
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Rad17 protein, human
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • ATM protein, human
  • Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Proteins
  • Atm protein, mouse
  • Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • DNA Polymerase II