Factor X, a vitamin K-dependent protein, is the plasma zymogen for the active serine protease factor Xa. Factor Xa is the proteolytic enzyme for prothrombinase, the multi-protein membrane complex that catalyses the cleavage of prothrombin to thrombin. A panel of 10 monoclonal antibodies (identified by their corresponding clone numbers: 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 26, 27, 54, 73, and 79) to factor X were produced by immunizing mice with purified factor X. All of the antibodies bound both human factor X and factor Xa in a solid-phase ELISA and binding of the antibodies was not affected by removal of Ca2+ with EDTA. In immunoblot analysis, antibody alpha HFX-54 bound to the light chain and antibodies alpha HFX-1, -5, -7, and -26 bound to the heavy chain of reduced factor X. Antibodies alpha BFX-2b, alpha HFX-27, -54, and -73 prolonged both the factor X-dependent clotting time and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) of normal plasma while antibody alpha HFX-1 only prolonged the APTT. None of the antibodies significantly inhibited factor X activation by purified Russell's viper venom factor X activator. In prothrombin activation assays using purified factor Xa, factor Va, prothrombin, Ca2+ and phospholipid vesicles, seven of the antibodies (alpha HFX-1, -3, -26, -27, -54, -73 and alpha BFX2b) showed some inhibition of thrombin generation ranging from 18 to 60% of the control. The decrease in factor X plasma clotting activity was most likely due to inhibition of factor Xa activity in prothrombinase, although some antibody-dependent inhibition of factor X activation may contribute to the observed inhibition of plasma clotting. Prothrombinase activity on platelets was inhibited in an identical manner by the monoclonal antibodies. When prothrombin was activated in the absence of factor Va, only antibody alpha BFX-2b inhibited activation. Calcium-independent determinants on both the heavy chain (determinants 1 and 26) and light chain (determinant 54) of factor X may play a role in prothrombin activation by prothrombinase. Other epitopes (antibodies alpha HFX-3, -27, -73) appeared to be influenced by association of factor Xa with factor Va. Topographic regions on factor X important for factor X activation and factor Xa function may be identified by the use of these monoclonal antibodies.