In order to increase the availability and affordability of radioimmunotherapy of refractory or relapsed non-Hodgkins lymphoma, we developed and evaluated radioiodinated rituximab in an ongoing physician-sponsored Phase II Clinical Trial. The chimeric 1gG(1) anti CD 20 monoclonal antibody rituximab was radiolabeled with iodine-131 using a modified Chloramine T method with high radiochemical purity (98% +/- 0.82) and preservation of immunoreactivity. All patients received therapeutic loading doses of unlabeled rituximab (375 mg/m(2)) immediately prior to administration of tracer (200 MBq (131)I) or therapy (1.7-4.3 GBq (131)I) activities of (131)I-rituximab to provide additive immunotherapy and enhance tumor uptake of the radiolabeled antibody. Objective response rate (ORR) was 71% in 35 patients with a median follow-up of 14 months (range 4-28 months). Complete remission (CR) was achieved in 54% of patients, with median duration 20 months. Toxicity evaluation included an additional 7 patients followed for at least 3 months. Tracer dosimetry studies were performed in each patient and the whole body radiation absorbed dose was limited to a mean prescribed dose (MPD) of 0.75 Gy. Myelosuppression was reversible and in only 2 of 42 patients was grade IV hematological toxicity observed. No hemopoietic support was required in any patient. There was no instance of hemorrhage or infection in this group of patients in each of whom individual prospective dosimetry was performed prior to (131)I rituximab radioimmunotherapy for relapsed or refractory non-Hodgkins lymphoma.