Salmonella enterica forms polyhedral bodies involved in coenzyme-B12-dependent 1,2-propanediol degradation. Prior studies showed that these bodies consist of a proteinaceous shell partly composed of the PduA protein, coenzyme-B12-dependent diol dehydratase, and additional unidentified proteins. In this report, we show that the PduP protein is a polyhedral-body-associated CoA-acylating aldehyde dehydrogenase important for 1,2-propanediol degradation by S. enterica. A PCR-based method was used to construct a precise nonpolar deletion of the gene pduP. The resulting pduP deletion strain grew poorly on 1,2-propanediol minimal medium and expressed 105-fold less propionaldehyde dehydrogenase activity (0.011 micromol min(-1) mg(-1)) than did wild-type S. enterica grown under similar conditions (1.15 micromol min(-1) mg(-1)). An Escherichia coli strain was constructed for high-level production of His8-PduP, which was purified by nickel-affinity chromatography and shown to have 15.2 micromol min(-1) mg(-1) propionaldehyde dehydrogenase activity. Analysis of assay mixtures by reverse-phase HPLC and mass spectrometry established that propionyl-CoA was the product of the PduP reaction. For subcellular localization, purified His8-PduP was used as antigen for the preparation of polyclonal antiserum. The antiserum obtained was shown to have high specificity for the PduP protein and was used in immunogold electron microscopy studies, which indicated that PduP was associated with the polyhedral bodies involved in 1,2-propanediol degradation. Further evidence for the localization of the PduP enzyme was obtained by showing that propionaldehyde dehydrogenase activity co-purified with the polyhedral bodies. The fact that both Ado-B12-dependent diol dehydratase and propionaldehyde dehydrogenase are associated with the polyhedral bodies is consistent with the proposal that these structures function to minimize propionaldehyde toxicity during the growth of S. enterica on 1,2-propanediol.