New designer drug 1-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl) piperazine (TFMPP): gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry studies on its phase I and II metabolism and on its toxicological detection in rat urine

J Mass Spectrom. 2003 Sep;38(9):971-81. doi: 10.1002/jms.513.


Studies are described on the phase I and II metabolism and the toxicological analysis of the piperazine-derived designer drug 1-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazine (TFMPP) in rat urine using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). The identified metabolites indicated that TFMPP was extensively metabolized, mainly by hydroxylation of the aromatic ring and by degradation of the piperazine moiety to N-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl)ethylenediamine, N-(hydroxy-3-trifluoromethylphenyl)ethylenediamine, 3-trifluoromethylaniline, and hydroxy-3-trifluoromethylaniline. Phase II reactions included glucuronidation, sulfatation and acetylation of phase I metabolites. The authors' systematic toxicological analysis (STA) procedure using full-scan GC/MS after acid hydrolysis, liquid-liquid extraction and microwave-assisted acetylation allowed the detection of TFMPP and its above-mentioned metabolites in rat urine after single administration of a dose calculated from the doses commonly taken by drug users. Assuming similar metabolism, the described STA procedure should be suitable for proof of an intake of TFMPP in human urine.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Chromatography, Liquid
  • Designer Drugs / metabolism*
  • Designer Drugs / toxicity*
  • Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
  • Mass Spectrometry / methods*
  • Molecular Structure
  • Molecular Weight
  • Piperazines / metabolism*
  • Piperazines / toxicity
  • Piperazines / urine*
  • Rats


  • Designer Drugs
  • Piperazines
  • 1-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazine