Modified 3-alkyl-1,8-dibenzylxanthines as GTP-competitive inhibitors of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase

Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2003 Oct 20;13(20):3607-10. doi: 10.1016/s0960-894x(03)00722-4.


The first non-substrate like inhibitors of human cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) competitive with GTP are reported. An effort to discover orally active compounds that improve glucose homeostasis in Type 2 diabetics by reversibly inhibiting PEPCK led to the discovery of 1-allyl-3-butyl-8-methylxanthine (5). We now report modifications at N-1 and C-8 that improved the in vitro activity of the initial xanthine HTS hit by 100-fold and a developing SAR for this class of inhibitor.

MeSH terms

  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / metabolism
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / chemistry
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology*
  • Glucose / metabolism
  • Guanosine Triphosphate / metabolism*
  • Homeostasis
  • Humans
  • Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase (GTP) / antagonists & inhibitors*
  • Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase (GTP) / metabolism
  • Structure-Activity Relationship


  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Guanosine Triphosphate
  • Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase (GTP)
  • Glucose