In a prospective study, we evaluated 33 diabetic patients [type I (n = 8) and type II (n = 25)]. Esophageal motor functions were examined by registering clinical symptoms and by performing esophageal manometry. We also investigated peripheral and autonomic neuropathy. In diabetics, the lower and upper esophageal sphincter pressure and amplitudes of peristaltic waves were reduced. Compared with controls (n = 30), in diabetics the esophageal peristaltic velocity was reduced significantly, and the duration of contractions were decreased as well. Multipeaked waves were uncommon in diabetics, while non-propulsive contractions were seen more often. No correlation was found between esophageal dysfunction and peripheral or autonomic neuropathy. Some 60% of diabetics reported esophageal symptoms; however, no relationship between these symptoms and the extent of dysfunction in esophageal motility was found.