Epac: a new cAMP target and new avenues in cAMP research

Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2003 Sep;4(9):733-8. doi: 10.1038/nrm1197.


Five years ago, Epac--a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the Ras-like small GTPases Rap1 and Rap2--was found to be a new target of cyclic AMP, which opened up new avenues for cAMP research. Structural analysis of the cAMP-binding domains of Epac2 has identified a unifying mechanism for how cAMP activates proteins, and the design and synthesis of an Epac-specific cAMP analogue has paved the way for future discoveries.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Adhesion / physiology
  • Cyclic AMP / analogs & derivatives
  • Cyclic AMP / metabolism*
  • Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors / genetics
  • Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Insulin / metabolism
  • Insulin Secretion
  • Protein Structure, Tertiary


  • Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors
  • Insulin
  • RAPGEF3 protein, human
  • Cyclic AMP