Priming virulence factors for delivery into the host

Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2003 Sep;4(9):738-43. doi: 10.1038/nrm1201.


Several medically important Gram-negative bacterial pathogens inject virulence factors into host cells through a type III secretion system and specialized bacterial chaperones are required for their effective delivery. Recent structural work shows that these chaperones maintain virulence factors in a partially non-globular conformation that is primed for unfolding and translocation through the 'injectisome'.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Gram-Negative Bacteria / pathogenicity*
  • Humans
  • Molecular Chaperones / metabolism*
  • Virulence Factors / metabolism*


  • Molecular Chaperones
  • Virulence Factors