Although several observational studies have demonstrated an association between vitamin K status and bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women, no placebo-controlled intervention trials of the effect of vitamin K1 supplementation on bone loss have been reported thus far. In the trial presented here we have investigated the potential complementary effect of vitamin K1 (1 mg/day) and a mineral + vitamin D supplement (8 microg/day) on postmenopausal bone loss. The design of our study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention study; 181 healthy postmenopausal women between 50 and 60 years old were recruited, 155 of whom completed the study. During the 3-year treatment period, participants received a daily supplement containing either placebo, or calcium, magnesium, zinc, and vitamin D (MD group), or the same formulation with additional vitamin K1 (MDK group). The main outcome was the change in BMD of the femoral neck and lumbar spine after 3 years, as measured by DXA. The group receiving the supplement containing additional vitamin K1 showed reduced bone loss of the femoral neck: after 3 years the difference between the MDK and the placebo group was 1.7% (95% Cl: 0.35-3.44) and that between the MDK and MD group was 1.3% (95% Cl: 0.10-3.41). No significant differences were observed among the three groups with respect to change of BMD at the site of the lumbar spine. If co-administered with minerals and vitamin D, vitamin K1 may substantially contribute to reducing postmenopausal bone loss at the site of the femoral neck.