This report presents detailed information on age- and gender-related differences in the anatomical and physiological characteristics of reference individuals. These reference values provide needed input to prospective dosimetry calculations for radiation protection purposes for both workers and members of the general public. The purpose of this report is to consolidate and unify in one publication, important new information on reference anatomical and physiological values that has become available since Publication 23 was published by the ICRP in 1975. There are two aspects of this work. The first is to revise and extend the information in Publication 23 as appropriate. The second is to provide additional information on individual variation among grossly normal individuals resulting from differences in age, gender, race, or other factors. This publication collects, unifies, and expands the updated ICRP reference values for the purpose of providing a comprehensive and consistent set of age- and gender-specific reference values for anatomical and physiological features of the human body pertinent to radiation dosimetry. The reference values given in this report are based on: (a) anatomical and physiological information not published before by the ICRP; (b) recent ICRP publications containing reference value information; and (c) information in Publication 23 that is still considered valid and appropriate for radiation protection purposes. Moving from the past emphasis on 'Reference Man', the new report presents a series of reference values for both male and female subjects of six different ages: newborn, 1 year, 5 years, 10 years, 15 years, and adult. In selecting reference values, the Commission has used data on Western Europeans and North Americans because these populations have been well studied with respect to antomy, body composition, and physiology. When appropriate, comparisons are made between the chosen reference values and data from several Asian populations. The first section of the report provides summary tables of all the anatomical and physiological parameters given as reference values in this publication. These results give a comprehensive view of reference values for an individual as influenced by age and gender. The second section describes characteristics of dosimetric importance for the embryo and fetus. Information is provided on the development of the total body and the timing of appearance and development of the various organ systems. Reference values are provided on the mass of the total body and selected organs and tissues, as well as a number of physiological parameters. The third section deals with reference values of important anatomical and physiological characteristics of reference individuals from birth to adulthood. This section begins with details on the growth and composition of the total body in males and females. It then describes and quantifies anatomical and physiological characteristics of various organ systems and changes in these characteristics during growth, maturity, and pregnancy. Reference values are specified for characteristics of dosimetric importance. The final section gives a brief summary of the elemental composition of individuals. Focusing on the elements of dosimetric importance, information is presented on the body content of 13 elements: calcium, carbon, chloride, hydrogen, iodine, iron, magnesium, nitrogen, oxygen, potassium, sodium, sulphur, and phosphorus.