Clustered-charge to alanine scanning mutagenesis of the Mal63 MAL-activator C-terminal regulatory domain

Curr Genet. 2003 Dec;44(4):173-83. doi: 10.1007/s00294-003-0429-9. Epub 2003 Sep 24.


The MAL-activator genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encode regulatory proteins required for the expression of the structural genes encoding maltose permease and maltase. Residues within the C-terminal region of the Mal63 protein required for negative regulation were previously identified. Evidence suggested that the C-terminal domain is also involved in positive regulatory functions, such as inducer responsiveness and transactivation in the context of a full-length protein. Charged-cluster to alanine scanning mutagenesis of the regulatory domain of MAL63 and the constitutive MAL43-C were undertaken to identify distinct regions within Mal63p involved in positive functions and to define their roles in induction. Mutations that affect the ability to activate transcription in the inducible MAL63 but have no effect in the constitutive MAL43-C define regions that function in induction. Those that affect both the inducible and constitutive alleles define regions involved in activation more generally. Mutations in MAL63 fell into three classes, those that have little or no impact on activity, those that decrease activity, and those that enhance function. Mutations from these classes mapped to distinct regions of the protein, identifying a region of approximately 90 residues (residues 331-423) involved in maltose sensing and an approximately 50-residue region at the extreme C-terminus (residues 420-470) required for activation, such as the formation and/or maintenance of an active state. These studies support a model for MAL-activator function which involves complex protein-protein interactions and overlapping negative and positive regulatory regions.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Blotting, Western
  • Carbon Radioisotopes
  • DNA Primers
  • Enzyme Induction / genetics
  • Maltose / metabolism
  • Membrane Transport Proteins / biosynthesis
  • Models, Biological*
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Monosaccharide Transport Proteins
  • Mutagenesis
  • Mutation / genetics*
  • Plasmids / genetics
  • Protein Structure, Tertiary / genetics
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / genetics*
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / metabolism
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins / genetics
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins / metabolism*
  • Sequence Alignment
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA
  • Transcription Factors / genetics
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism*
  • Transcriptional Activation / genetics*
  • alpha-Glucosidases / metabolism


  • Carbon Radioisotopes
  • DNA Primers
  • MAL63 protein, S cerevisiae
  • Membrane Transport Proteins
  • Monosaccharide Transport Proteins
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins
  • Transcription Factors
  • Maltose
  • maltose permease
  • alpha-Glucosidases