High prevalence of MMTV-like env gene sequences in gestational breast cancer

Med Oncol. 2003;20(3):233-6. doi: 10.1385/MO:20:3:233.


Gestational breast cancer (BC) is generally associated with rapid growth and increased mortality. Because the presence of MMTV-like sequences in BC has been associated with laminin receptor expression, a marker of poor prognosis, gestational BCs were analyzed for MMTV env gene-like sequences to explore whether MMTV-like sequences were also associated with its adverse outcome. Whereas 30-38% of sporadic BC have the sequences, in gestational BC the prevalence is 62%. We suggest that hormonal response elements present in the MMTV-like LTR may play a role in promoting cell growth, as they do in the mouse system.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Breast Neoplasms / genetics
  • Breast Neoplasms / virology*
  • Carcinoma, Ductal / genetics
  • Carcinoma, Ductal / virology*
  • DNA, Neoplasm
  • Female
  • Genes, env / genetics*
  • Hormones / pharmacology
  • Humans
  • Lactation
  • Mammary Tumor Virus, Mouse / genetics*
  • Mice
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Pregnancy
  • Prognosis
  • Response Elements
  • Terminal Repeat Sequences / genetics


  • DNA, Neoplasm
  • Hormones