The members of the collapsin response mediator protein (CRMP) family-five cytosolic phosphoproteins -are highly expressed throughout brain development. The first member to be cloned, CRMP2, was identified as an intracellular messenger required for the growth cone-collapse induced by semaphorin 3A (Sema3A). A rapidly expanding body of study indicates that the functions of CRMPs are not solely limited to the signaling transduction of the Sema3A guidance cue. They are probably involved in multiple cellular and molecular events involved in apoptosis/proliferation, cell migration, and differentiation. In the adult brain, the expression of CRMPs is dramatically downregulated. However, they remain expressed in structures that retain their capacity for differentiation and plasticity and also in a subpopulation of oligodendrocytes (CRMP2 and CRMP5). Moreover, the expression of CRMPs is altered in neurodegenerative diseases, and these proteins may be of key importance in the physiopathology of the adult nervous system.