Plasmin generation dependent on alpha-enolase-type plasminogen receptor is required for myogenesis

Thromb Haemost. 2003 Oct;90(4):724-33. doi: 10.1160/TH03-04-0291.


Plasmin is a potent extracellular protease specialized in the degradation of fibrin (fibrinolysis). Active plasmin is generated by proteolytic activation of the zymogen plasminogen (Plg) by urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA). Alpha-enolase constitutes a receptor for plasminogen on several leukocyte cell types, serving to localize and promote plasminogen activation pericellularly. However, a role for a -enolase-type plasminogen receptor (PlgR) in myogenesis has never been demonstrated. In this study, we show that C2C12 mouse myoblasts express PlgR, being its expression greatly induced during the differentiation process. A monoclonal antibody against PIgR MAb 11G1, with cell surface-generated plasmin inhibitory abilities, was able to fully abrogate C2C12 myoblast fusion and differentiation in vitro. Moreover, both plasmin activity and PlgR expression were significantly induced in regenerating skeletal muscle in vivo, either in experimentally-injured muscle or in the dystrophic muscle of mdx mouse (an animal model of human Duchenne muscular dystrophy, DMD). The mdx muscle presents better regeneration capacities and less fibrosis than the human DMD muscle; therefore, the increase in PlgR/plasmin activity in mdx muscle suggests an important contribution of the fibrinolytic system in mdx regeneration. This study constitutes the first indication of alpha-enolase-type plasminogen receptor as an important component of skeletal myogenesis, by concentrating and enhancing plasmin generation on the cell surface.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Cell Fusion
  • Cell Line
  • Cell Membrane / metabolism
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / physiology*
  • Fibrinolysin / biosynthesis*
  • Fibrinolysin / metabolism
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Mice, Inbred mdx
  • Muscle Development*
  • Muscle, Skeletal / injuries
  • Muscle, Skeletal / physiology
  • Muscular Dystrophies / metabolism
  • Myoblasts / cytology
  • Myoblasts / metabolism
  • Phosphopyruvate Hydratase / physiology*
  • Receptors, Cell Surface / physiology*
  • Receptors, Urokinase Plasminogen Activator
  • Regeneration
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins / physiology*


  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • PLAUR protein, human
  • Plaur protein, mouse
  • Receptors, Cell Surface
  • Receptors, Urokinase Plasminogen Activator
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Fibrinolysin
  • ENO1 protein, human
  • Phosphopyruvate Hydratase