Analysis of allelic associations is an increasingly more widely used approach to fine mapping of genes of various diseases. To interpret the results correctly, it is necessary to estimate the power of the statistical test used. The principle of the analysis of associations and testing of hypothesis are described, and analytically obtained estimates of the power of the transmission disequilibrium test (TDT), one of the most popular methods of analysis of allelic associations, are presented. These estimates are applicable to arbitrary models of inheritance formulated in terms of relative genotypic risk. The proposed method is illustrated by analysis of the associations of idiopathic scoliosis and aggrecan gene alleles.